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Template:Infobox automobile The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle to be produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors and expected to be launched in November 2010 as a 2011 model. Its propulsion system is based on GM's new Voltec (formerly known as E-Flex) electric automobile platform, which differs significantly from GM's earlier BAS Hybrid and Two-Mode Hybrid systems. For up to the first Template:Convert, the Volt is powered by electrical energy stored in its on-board lithium-ion batteries, which are charged by connection to an electrical outlet. The car's 16 kW·h (8.8 kW·h usable) lithium-ion battery pack can be fully charged by plugging the car into a 120-240VAC residential electrical outlet using the provided SAE J1772-compliant[1] charging cord. No external charging station is required.[2] With fully charged batteries, enough electrical energy will be stored to power the Volt up to Template:Convert, a distance longer than the daily commute for 75% of Americans,[3] whose average commute is Template:Convert.[4] After Template:Convert, a small 4-cylinder internal combustion engine using premium-grade[5] gasoline creates electricity on-board using a Template:Convert generator to extend the Volt's range to more than Template:Convert.[6][7] The electrical power from the generator is sent primarily to the electric motor, with the excess going to the batteries, depending on the state of charge (SoC) of the battery pack and the power demanded at the wheels. The distribution is controlled by the electronic control unit (ECU) of the vehicle.[8][9] Unlike most current commercially available hybrid electric vehicles, the actual propulsion of the Volt is accomplished exclusively by the electric motor.[10] The Volt's retail price will start at Template:USD (including destination charges) before any factory incentives, tax deductions, or other subsidies. The Volt is currently eligible for a Template:USD U.S. federal tax credit and other benefits available in some locations. The Volt will also be available through a lease program with a monthly payment of Template:USD for 36 months, with Template:USD due at lease signing, and with an option to buy at the end of the lease.[11][12] The Volt will be initially sold in seven regions: California, Washington DC, Michigan, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Austin, Texas. Nationwide availability in the U.S. and Canada is scheduled to begin in one year to 18 months after the initial launch.[13][14][15] The first pre-production test car based on the full Volt design was built in June 2009 in Warren, Michigan,[16] and by October 2009, 80 Volts had been built and are being tested under various conditions.[17] On March 31, 2010, the first factory-built Volt was produced at the Detroit Hamtramck Assembly Plant in order to test the production line and for quality control purposes, both of the tooling and the pre-production vehicles that will be produced before regular production begins.[18][19]

## Classification as a "hybrid" Edit

Because the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) definition of a hybrid vehicle states the vehicle shall have "two or more energy storage systems both of which must provide propulsion power, either together or independently,"[20] the company has avoided the use of the term "hybrid" when describing its Voltec designs. Instead GM describes the Volt as an electric vehicle equipped with a "range extending" gasoline powered internal combustion engine (ICE) as a genset and therefore dubbed an "Extended Range Electric Vehicle"[21][22] or E-REV.[6][21][22][23] However, due to the combination of an internal combustion engine and electric motors in series rather than parallel, this configuration is most commonly referred to as a plug-in series hybrid. See Hybrid vehicle drivetrain.

## Design Edit

### Concept vehicle Edit

The Volt concept vehicle has four doors with a rear liftgate, and is capable of carrying four passengers. This is a significant change in design when compared to the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s, which only seated two to reduce weight. The top speed has also been increased on the Volt, from the electronically limited Template:Convert to Template:Convert. The battery pack size has also been reduced, from about 300 L in volume in the EV1, to just 100 L in the Volt.[24] GM's Vice Chairman Robert Lutz told Newsweek in 2007 that a two-seat sports car by Tesla Motors, the Roadster, and the rapid advancement of battery technology inspired him to push GM to develop the Volt.[25]

### Production model Edit

The production design model, first revealed to the public on September 16, 2008, differs greatly in design from the original concept car. Citing necessary aerodynamic changes needed to extend the Volt's initial full-charge range, the Volt uses GM's new "Delta II" platform, shared by the planned 2010 Chevrolet Cruze and the 2011 Saab 9-3.[26][27] Although GM has not publicly revealed the production model's drag coefficient, they claim it will be lower than the 0.25 drag coefficient of the Toyota Prius, which uses a Kammback body.[28]

### Electromechanical design timeline Edit

GM executives report that battery technology will have a large impact in determining the success of the car.[29][30] To help spur battery research, GM selected two companies to provide advanced lithium-ion battery packs: Compact Power (CPI), which uses manganese spinel based cells made by its parent company, LG Chemical; and Continental Automotive Systems, which uses nanophosphate based cylindrical cells made by A123Systems.[31][32] However, on August 9, 2007, GM established a more close-knit relationship with A123Systems so that the two companies could co-develop a Volt-specific battery cell.[33] This cell was later unveiled at the EVS23 industry convention in Anaheim, CA.[34] Work with CPI has continued at a rapid pace, and in late 2007 CPI delivered two fully functional prototype battery packs to GM's testing facilities. On January 31, 2008, A123 and Continental delivered their first prototype to GM's European test facilities. GM will use LG Chem batteries for the production model.[35] GM expects ten years of life out of the batteries. As of early 2008, they had started extensive battery testing and planned to have 10-year battery results in two years. Batteries were placed in the Chevrolet Malibu for further real-world testing.[36] In April 2008, GM Vice Chairman Bob Lutz said that the first battery test mule was now running with a lithium-ion battery pack.[37] By that summer, GM confirmed that a non-turbocharged, 1.4 liter 4-cylinder engine would be used as the range extender, and that the intention is to build it in Flint, Michigan.[38] In August 2008, Andrew Farah, the car's chief engineer, stated that the project remains on-track to hit the 2010 deadline saying "at this point, there’s nothing standing in our way of continuing to do what we said we’re going to do."[39] In April 2009, GM allowed journalists to test the Volt powertrain in the body of Chevrolet Cruze sedans used as test mules which lacked the range-extending generator. The driving tests were conducted at GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Several of the journalists noted that the Volt mule's drive in electric mode is quiet and smooth, without any of the typical noises in commercially available hybrids when accelerating or decelerating. In November 2009, a journalist described the 'feel' of driving the car as it transitioned from electric to generator mode as "the engine’s initial engagement is inaudible and seamless"[40] Due to significant noise reduction typical of hybrids and plug-ins vehicles traveling in all-electric mode at low speeds, GM plans to include in the Volt warning sounds when the car is operating at low speeds to alert pedestrians, the blind and others to the car's presence.[41][42][43][44] The first integration prototype based on the final Volt design was built in June 2009, in Warren, Michigan.[16][45] By October, 80 Volts had been built and tested in various conditions,[17] and by October 2009, GM expects 80 of them to be on the road as press cars and test vehicles.[45]

### Drivetrain Edit

The 2007 Chevrolet Volt concept vehicle that appeared in the North American International Auto Show[46] introduced the Voltec[47] drive system, which is an attempt to standardize many components of possible future electrically propelled vehicles, and to allow multiple interchangeable electricity-generating systems. The initial design as envisioned in the Volt combines an electric motor and Template:Convert lithium-ion battery plug-in system[48] with a small 1.0 L engine powered by gasoline linked to a Template:Convert generator. The vehicle is propelled by an electric motor with a peak output of Template:Convert delivering 273 lb-ft (368 N-m) of motoring torque. Ordinarily, the vehicle would be charged while at home overnight. According to General Motors a full charge will take approximately eight hours from a standard North American 120 V, 15 A household outlet and less than three hours if using a standard 240 VAC outlet.[26] Charge times will be less if the battery is not fully depleted when charging commences. Since the electrical drivetrain is not affected by the method used to charge its batteries, several options could be made available for the genset engine. The original prototype specifications for the Volt indicated a turbo-charged 1.0 litre 3-cylinder engine would be used.[49] However the initial production configuration currently specified by GM indicates the use of a naturally aspirated 1.4-liter 4-cylinder gasoline engine (Opel's Family 0)RPO LUU with approximately 80 horsepower. An E85 flex-fuel Volt version is under development and it will be available around a year after the initial launch[11][50][51] This drivetrain layout is considered a plug-in series hybrid design since mechanical power drives the generator, which in turn either charges the battery pack or provides power to the electric motor. While the ICE has an electrical connection with the electric motor and hence the wheels, there is no mechanical linkage to the wheels (unlike current automobile hybrid vehicles such as the Toyota Prius), allowing optimization of engine rpm for fuel consumption, efficient rate of charge, and low emissions. GM plans to station charge the lithium-ion battery to a state-of-charge (SoC) range of approx 85%. Then once the battery depletes to a precise low set-point (<25%) the on-board ICE powered generator will maintain the state of charge of the battery between the lower setpoint and an upper set-point above the 30% SoC level.[20][52] GM has decided on a new descriptive terminology to distinguish it from traditional hybrids. They are calling the Volt an E-REV, for extended-range electric vehicle, although it still qualifies as a hybrid.[53]

## Production and sales Edit

### North America Edit

In July 2007, General Motors stated that it would have the Volt on the U.S. market in 2010,[54] and in early June 2008, they confirmed that production had been approved, with a target of getting the Volt into showrooms by the end of 2010.[55] Following the conclusion of the 2007 UAW-GM contract talks, assembly of the Volt was assigned to Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly.[56] Initially the gasoline engine will be imported from the Opel engine plant in Aspern, Austria.[57] GM announced an initial production for calendar year 2011 of 10,000 Volts and production for 2012 will be 45,000 units, up from the 30,000 units initially announced.[58]

#### Scheduled roll-out Edit

The Volt will be sold initially only in California, Washington Metropolitan Area, Michigan, Texas, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut.[13][15] The first cars will be available in Washington D.C., the New York City metropolitan region, California, and Austin, Texas. During the first quarter of 2011 the market will expand to Michigan, the rest of Texas and to all of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut.[59] The restricted roll-out is due to limited production, as GM planned production for 2011 is only 10,000 units.[15][59] Nationwide availability in the U.S. and Canada is scheduled to begin in late 2011 until mid 2012.[14][15][59]

### Price, tax credits and other incentives Edit

#### United States Edit

In the U.S. market, the retail price of the Volt will start at Template:USD which includes all destination charges but before any tax deductions or subsidies.[11][12] Due to the capacity of the Volt's battery pack it qualifies for the maximum Template:USD federal tax credit as specified in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.[11][60] Also several states have additional incentives or rebates available for plug-in electric vehicles.[11][61] More than 600 Chevrolet dealers in the seven launch markets will begin taking orders beginning July 27, 2010.[11] Available options on the Volt include three different colors of premium paint, chrome wheels, rear parking assist and heated leather seats. The Volt price including all available regular production options will be Template:USD (including destination charges and before tax credits or any subsidies)[62] The Volt will also be available through a lease program with a monthly payment of Template:USD for 36 months, with Template:USD due at lease signing, and with an option to buy at the end of the lease.[11][12] Although the Volt's retail price is higher than its main competitor, the Nissan Leaf, the lease rate for the Volt is almost the same as its competitor, except that the Leaf has a lower initial payment. General Motors explained that "the apparent disparity between the Volt's sticker and lease prices is a reflection of the company's calculation that the vehicle will maintain a very high residual value after three years—significantly higher than that of the LEAF."[12][63] The 2011 Volt was not submitted for application to the California Air Resources Board's Clean Vehicle Rebate Project rebate and therefore is not required to meet the 10-year 150.000 mile battery warranty requirement for partial zero-emissions vehicles (Enhanced AT-PZEV). The Volt team explained that for the launch GM decided to go with a common national package which includes an 8-year 100,000 mile battery warranty.A configuraton which qualifies for the CARB Enhanced AT-PZEV package is scheduled for a later release. Also a third package under development with an E85 flex-fuel engine will be launched at some future date. The engineering team commented that "introducing two or three packages of an entirely new technology set and platform at the same time wasn't an option."[11]

## Specifications Edit

### Fuel economy Edit

For trips less than about Template:Convert, a fully charged Chevy Volt may travel using just stored electricity and not require any on-board gasoline. This is referred to as Charge Depletion (CD) mode and the Volt is expected to use approximately 25 kW·h/100 mi on the city cycle of the EPA's test while operating in this mode. Once the Volt's battery has discharged to the estimated 30% lower State of Charge (SoC) limit, the engine starts and supplies power to the electric motor to continue driving the car and maintains the battery charge at 30%.[52] The Volt's range-extending gasoline engine is expected to get approximately Template:Convert on the city cycle of the EPA's test while operating in this Charge Sustaining (CS) mode.Template:Citation needed On August 2009, GM released their estimated city fuel economy rating for the Volt of Template:Convert of gasoline plus 25 kW·h/100 mi (560 kJ/km) of electricity using the EPA's proposed method for evaluating plug-in hybrids.[17][76][77] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a statement clarifying that the "EPA has not tested a Chevy Volt and therefore cannot confirm the fuel economy values claimed by GM."[17] On July 2010 General Motors recognized that their estimate was based on a formula that never got official approval, and are awaiting EPA's decision on how the equivalent fuel economy of plug-in hybrids will be estimated.[78] The Volt, however, can use both gasoline and grid electricity; thus, assigning a fuel economy value that only refers to on-board gasoline would not be appropriate. The EPA is working on an updated methodology for determining and then reporting the equivalent fuel economy of PHEVs. An EPA presentation to the Society of Automotive Engineers in February, 2009 discussed a method based on SAE J1711 to combine the gasoline fuel economy with the electrical fuel economy using the petroleum equivalency factor of 33.7 Template:Frac (the lower heating value of gasoline and the value used by the DOE[79]) which would combine GM's estimated city fuel economies for the Volt into an overall 85 mpgge[notes 1] for reporting.[80][81]

### Battery Edit

Template:See also Reuters reported in October, 2008 that GM had decided to work exclusively with Compact Power Incorporated (CPI), a Detroit-based unit of South Korea’s LG Chem, to develop the battery systems for the first production version of the Volt.[82][83][84][85] The cells will be produced in Korea and subsequently shipped to the United States, where the battery packs will be assembled at a purpose-built facility in Brownstown Township, Michigan owned and operated by GM.[86] The Volt's Template:Convert, 220-cell lithium-ion battery (Li-ion) pack is anticipated to store 16 kW·h of energy,[26][87] but will be restricted (in software) to use only 8.8 kW·h of this capacity to maximize the life of the pack. It will only be allowed to charge to 85% of full capacity and to discharge only to approximately 30% SoC before the engine cuts in and maintains the charge near the lower level. When the vehicle is plugged into a charger the battery SoC is restored to 85%. Despite containing near identical energy (+/- 0.5kWh), the Volt's battery pack is over 70% lighter than the EV1's original Template:Convert, 16.5 kW·h AC Delco lead-acid battery pack, mainly because the Volt will use higher specific energy Li-ion batteries. Li-Ion batteries are expected to become less expensive as economies of scale take effect.[88][89][90][91] The battery needs a minimum temperature of between 0 °C and 10 °C (32 °F and 50 °F) to be used and when the Volt is plugged in the battery will be kept warm enough so that it can be used immediately when the Volt is unplugged.[92] If the Volt is kept unplugged and the temperature of the battery is below the minimum temperature the gasoline engine will run until the battery warms up.[92] This temperature regulation is done since electro-chemical batteries have degraded performance when they are very cold.[92] The Volt's battery will be guaranteed by GM for eight years or Template:Convert, and will cover all 161 battery components.[93]

### Charge plug interface Edit

The Volt will use a new plug specification, SAE J1772-2009, that is being proposed as a standard for electric cars.[94][95]

## Regulated emissions impact Edit

It is anticipated that the Chevrolet Volt will be granted a California Air Resources Board (CARB) classification as an Advanced Technology Partial zero-emissions vehicle (AT-PZEV). Assuming a fully charged battery, the Volt will use no gasoline and produce no tailpipe emissions for up to Template:Convert of initial daily driving.[26] However, after Template:Convert, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the HV battery will be depleted and the internal combustion engine (ICE) will start up to commence power generation.[96] During this period, using typical closed-loop fueling and exhaust after treatment (i.e. catalytic converter) the tail-pipe exhaust emissions will be similar to other 4-cyl low displacement gasoline-powered automobiles.[97] However, once a sufficient battery state-of-charge has been achieved, the ICE will again turn off,[26] returning to a zero emissions state. This ON:OFF ICE cycling behavior results in the reduction of Initial Trip Starts and therefore a reduction in total tailpipe emissions per distance travelled.[26]

## OnStar Mobile Edit

The Volt will feature Onstar Mobile for owners to access vehicle information without being in or near the car. The smart phone application features the ability to check fuel efficiency as well as the vehicle's current electric range. It will also help monitor the charging, giving owners key information about the current charge level and the amount of time it will take until it’s fully charged. The application will be able to control features such as locking/unlocking doors and can act as a remote car starter.[98] A five year OnStar service is bundled into the Volt's Template:USD base price.[11][63]

## Related concept cars Edit

The Cadillac Converj is a plug-in hybrid concept car manufactured by Cadillac, a division of General Motors, and first unveiled at the 2009 North American International Auto Show.[99][100] The Converj incorporates the propulsion system from the Chevy Volt, including the battery pack, the 120-kilowatt electric motor, and the four-cylinder engine-generator, collectively dubbed the Voltec powertrain. The Converj concept has an all-electric range of Template:Convert and a top speed of Template:Convert.[101]

### Volt MPV5 Edit

At the 2010 Auto China show GM unveiled the Chevrolet Volt MPV5 Concept. The Volt MPV5 is a plug-in crossover hybrid and has a top speed of Template:Convert and an electric range of Template:Convert. The MPV5 integrates design elements from the Volt, with body style very similar to the Chevrolet Orlando and four inches larger than the Chevrolet HHR.[102][103]

## Controversies and criticism Edit

As of September 2008, General Motors was reportedly in disagreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding how the Volt should be tested to determine its official fuel economy rating. The controversy centers around whether, by including an internal combustion gasoline engine, the Volt should be classified as a hybrid rather than an electric vehicle (and tested accordingly). If tested with the same EPA tests used by other hybrids, the Volt's EPA fuel economy rating would be around 48 mpg due to the current EPA test for hybrids disallowing vehicles from boosting their mpg rating using stored battery power. On the other hand, since the Volt was designed to run primarily off of electricity (with the ICE only used for recharging batteries), GM feels that the current test puts the Volt at a severe disadvantage. GM believes that the Volt is an entirely new type of vehicle which the EPA's current fuel economy tests are not suited to rate and that a new test should be devised for this emerging class of hybrid-electrics.[104] General Motors has pushed for a more simplified (and arguably more straightforward) mpg calculation method that takes into account the range of a hybrid while running solely on electricity. Because the Volt can travel 40 miles on batteries alone, GM argues that most drivers with a daily commute of less than 40 miles a day would never need to turn on the Volt's gasoline engine, so long as they recharged their vehicle at work or at night. Additionally, GM fears that if the Volt were required to finish the EPA test with a 100% battery charge (as is currently required for all hybrids), consumers would fail to see the true value of the vehicle as, effectively, an electric vehicle with an ICE range extender—a point GM is relying on to justify the vehicle's $41,000 price tag.[105] ### Production cost and sales price Edit In 2009, the Presidential Task Force on the Auto Industry said that "GM is at least one generation behind Toyota on advanced, “green” powertrain development. In an attempt to leapfrog Toyota, GM has devoted significant resources to the Chevy Volt." and that "while the Chevy Volt holds promise, it is currently projected to be much more expensive than its gasoline-fueled peers and will likely need substantial reductions in manufacturing cost in order to become commercially viable."[106] In an April 2009 interview with the president of GM's North American operations, Troy Clark stated he was uncertain if the next generation systems following the Volt would be profitable.[107] A 2009 Carnegie Mellon University study indicates that a PHEV-40 will be less cost effective than a HEV or a PHEV-7 in all of the scenarios considered, due to the cost and weight of the battery.[108] Jon Lauckner, a Vice President at GM, responded that the study did not consider the inconvenience of a seven mile electric range and that the study's cost estimate for the Volt's battery pack was "many hundreds of dollars per kilowatt hour higher" than what it costs to make today."[109] After the Volt's sales price was announced in July 2010, the Washington Post expressed its concern because as "for the near future, electric cars will be far too expensive for anyone but upper-income Americans. The only way to sell them, even to the well-off, will be with a large federal subsidy. The newspaper explained that the average new car sold for$28,350 in 2008, while the plug-in Volt, by contrast, will cost $41,000, less the$7,500-per-car federal tax credit, and that includes other subsidies derived from the $2.4 billion advanced vehicle technology grant program part of the economic stimulus plan. The Washington Post concludes that "common sense suggests the likeliest purchasers will be upscale consumers who already own gas-powered cars for heavy-duty driving, live in a single-family home with an electric outlet in the garage -- and can afford a green experiment."[110] In an OpEd published in the New York Times, Edward Niedermeyer, editor of the website The Truth About Cars, criticized General Motors because the Volt costs$41,000 before relevant tax breaks despite billions of dollars of government loans and grants for the Volt’s development and production. "And instead of the sleek coupe of 2007, it looks suspiciously similar to a Toyota Prius. It also requires premium gasoline, seats only four people (the battery runs down the center of the car, preventing a rear bench) and has less head and leg room than the $17,000 Chevrolet Cruze, which is more or less the non-electric version of the Volt." He also complained that in order to make the Volt more affordable G.M. decided to offer a$350-a-month lease over 36 months but limited to only 12,000 miles per year, or about 33 miles per day, but if an owner charged his Volt every evening which is good for 40 miles of battery power, but in the other hand if he wants to keep below the mileage limit, this Volt owner would rarely use its expensive range-extending gas engine. "No wonder the Volt’s main competition, the Nissan Leaf, forgoes the additional combustion engine — and ends up costing \$8,000 less as a result."[111] General Motors CEO Edward Whitacre Jr. rejected as "ridiculous" criticism that the Volt's price is too expensive. He said that "I wish we had thousands more (Volts) but we don't. I think it's a very fair price. It's the only car that will go coast to coast on electricity without plugging it in, and nobody else can come close."[112] A G.M. spokesman also commented they are not worried about the critics of the price and commented that the Template:USD leasing price is very affordable, nearly on par with Nissan's electric Leaf.[113]

Despite the federal government being the major GM shareholder due to the 2009 government-led bankruptcy of the automaker, during a press briefing at the White House an administration official clarified that the federal government did not have any input on the controversial pricing of the 2011 Chevrolet Volt. The Treasury official said that "We do not tell General Motors what to charge for its cars... we don't tell them what to charge for the Volt. We're not going to tell them what to charge for the Chevrolet Cruze."[114] There have been also complaints regarding price markups due to the initial limited availability. The New York Times reported that several dealers are charging between Template:USD to Template:USD above General Motors recommended price.[115] At least in one case a Template:USD mark up in California was reported by Edmunds.com.[116] Even though the carmaker cannot dictate vehicle pricing to its dealers, a G.M. spokesman said that the company had requested the dealers to keep prices in line with the company’s suggested retail price.[115]

### Battery charging emissions Edit

Charging the Volt's batteries still results in some greenhouse gas emissions from electrical generation at the local power station.[117] However, under most conditions CO2 output is less than other low emission vehicles and in the best case emissions are nearly zero.[118] GM claims that the Volt saves 4.4 metric tons in CO2 emissions annually compared to a typical U.S. car.[119] The University of California, Davis calculated that, generally, plug-in cars that are charged using electricity from the local grid will emit notably less CO2 overall than the use of cars powered from on-board, oil-based fuel, if a significant proportion of that electricity is generated from nuclear power and renewable sources such as hydro-electric (45% in California, for example).[120] UK based Auto Express magazine claims in a non-scientific study to have calculated that the generation of electricity for charging the batteries in the Volt resulted in emissions equivalent to 124.2 g/km of CO2 for electric-only trips (those not involving the use of any on board fuel), based on government figures for the average CO2 emissions from power stations. No calculations are shown in the article, so the veracity of this claim cannot be evaluated. According to Auto Express, this is more CO2 than the BMW 118d produces.[121] Using CO2 emissions data for the United States, the Auto Express estimate can be shown to imply Volt's plug-to-wheel efficiency of approximately 340 Wh/mile - somewhat high for electric vehicles (Tesla Roadster is EPA rated at 280 Wh/mile plug-to wheel), but within the realm of possibility. A study by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) predicts that, on average, a typical plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is expected to achieve about a 15% reduction in net CO2 emissions compared to the driver of a regular hybrid, based on the 2005 distribution of power sources feeding the U.S. electrical grid. The ACEEE study also predicts that in areas where less than 80% of grid-power comes from coal-burning power plants, local net CO2 emissions will decrease, but points out that these numbers are first order estimates and are not conclusive.[122] In Australia, where 85% of electricity nationally is produced using black and brown coal,[123] with most of the remainder produced using hydro and natural gas, the greenhouse emission factors vary between states, and is 1.22 kg-CO2e/kW·h [124] in Victoria, 0.890 kg-CO2e/kW·h in New South Wales, and 0.120 kg-CO2e/kW·h in Tasmania. Assuming a charge requires 8.8 kW·h,[125] allowing 40 miles (64 km) of travel without petrol, the greenhouse intensities are 167 g-CO2e/km for Victoria, 122 g-CO2e/km for NSW, and 16 g-CO2e/km for Tasmania. Electricity consumers can elect to purchase green power at a higher cost, but with significantly lower emissions. For comparative purposes using the same methodology, that is, measuring only the direct emissions from the burning of the fuel, and ignoring fuel procurement/production/delivery,[126] the Toyota Prius tank-to-wheel greenhouse intensity in units of g-CO2 (CO2e information not available) in Australia is 115 g/km (5.1 l/100 km combined cycle),[127] Toyota Yaris 1.3 manual is 141 g/km (6.0 l/100 km combined cycle), and the BMW 120d is 162 g/km (6.1 l/100 km combined cycle).[128] This comparison is not the standard method used by government agencies for comparing the emissions of two vehicles, where the tank-to-wheel only is used; in this case, the Volt would be emission-free for the 40-mile all-electric range (AER). The above comparison does not include the full fuel cycle for either vehicle, known as a well-to-wheel analysis, and so the numbers may be slightly misleading.